The holy city of Calcutta, India, has been a haven for pilgrims since its founding in 1607 and has remained an important cultural destination ever since.
However, recent events in India have left some people in Calcutts eyes wondering if India will ever return to its pre-1607 glory.
In September, the Hindu Samaj Party (HSP) of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi took over the city, which was previously controlled by the local government and was later turned into a Hindu temple.
The Hindu Samaaj Party, led by Prime Minister Modi, said it was “devoted to the promotion of Hinduism and the protection of Hindu rights” and “continued to work towards the fulfilment of the promise of Hindu Bharat”.
In a statement, the party said it had “implemented the first constitutional amendment to the constitution, in order to promote Hinduism, in the name of national unity”.
It said the amendment was aimed at safeguarding “the rights of minorities, particularly Dalits, tribals and other socially vulnerable groups”.
But some Hindu groups have been calling for a return to Calcuttans days of peace, harmony and prosperity, with many people blaming Modi for the events.
“Modi has lost control of the city.
He has lost the confidence of the people,” said Shanti Raman, an activist from the Dalit community in Calicut.
“He’s just a king of the jungle.
We need to take the reins and lead the country back to its rightful place.”
Modi and the Hindu groups also have an argument on the constitution.
They say the constitution provides that Calcutto shall be governed by the legislature.
But in reality, the legislature is the apex decision-making body.
The Constitution, they say, should not be made up of clauses that grant “the executive power of the state to a few individuals, without the right of popular scrutiny”.
“I have always said that the constitution is a piece of paper, and it can’t be changed,” said Raman.
“We want to get the constitution changed, we don’t want any new constitution.
If you don’t have a new constitution, there is no way for us to implement the constitution,” he added.
While many people in India are hoping that India will return to the days of prosperity and peace, others are not so sure.
“It’s going to be very difficult to rebuild Calcutte as it is,” said Jyoti Pandya, a Calcuttic who lives in Hyderabad.
“We will have to wait and see how it goes.”
In an article for the Guardian, Ms Pandya wrote that “it is hard to see how India can return to a pre-1700 era”.
“The political situation is not that good right now, but it will improve in the future,” she said.
Ms Pandya said she and her family have not lost faith in the government, and are trying to find a way forward.